Preheat a heavy skillet or wok on medium heat.
If using tofu or tempeh, dice and sauté in the skillet for 5 minutes, until golden on all sides. Remove from the skillet and set aside. (If using shelled edamame beans, pour boiling water over the frozen beans and let rest for 5 minutes, then drain before adding into the dish.)
Add the red onion and kale stems (save the leaves for step 6) to the skillet. Sauté 2 minutes.
Add the carrot and red bell pepper pieces. Sauté 3 minutes.
Add the lime juice and scrape the bottom of the skillet energetically to detach caramelized bits.
Return the tofu or tempeh to the skillet, along with the prepared sauce and noodles. Stir to coat everything nicely. Add the kale leaves and stir again.
Give the whole thing 2-3 minutes to get evenly warm.
Serve in bowls with a sprinkle of sesame seeds and any or all of the optional garnishes: fresh cilantro, vegan kimchi, and/or toasted sesame oil (a little goes a long way).